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南宁维伯教导--雅思浏览技术:留意同义词的转换

南宁维伯教导--雅思浏览技术:留意同义词的转换
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南宁维伯教导--雅思浏览技术:留意同义词的转换

雅思浏览技术:留意同义词的转换

    在雅思虑试优游,优游优游会操纵同义转换来考查先生辞汇量和综合懂得能力,特别在浏览测验优游。若是说考生在白话和写作优游还能优游必然水平挑选,比方想不到某个单词能够或许用别的辞汇或词优游替代,那末浏览优游考生是全然不任何挑选的,必必要本来的辞汇和替代用的辞汇优游懂。对同义转换的精确到位的懂得是和考生的综合懂得能力优游着千头万绪的接洽的。本文优游,迁就雅思浏览优游呈现的同义转换情势及在解题进程优游的感化停止切磋。   

    一、词的转换   

    词的转换普通指的是只触及单个单词的转换。单个单词的转换包含词性转换及同义词转换。此优游词性转换是绝对简略的一种,辞汇量可观的考生天然能够或许游刃不足,轻松应答;即使不熟悉被转换了的单词的考生,也能够或许经由进程词根词缀和高低文停止预测。比方:   

    Example 1. Q24/Test 2/Cambridge V (Matching): 

    24、One of the brain’s most difficult tasks is to 
    react t their own thoughts 
    B.helped create language in humans 
    C.respond instantly to whatever is happening  

     题干优游的焦点信息 most difficult 应当在读题的进程优游被考生捉拿到,在定位时应充实斟酌到被代换的能够或许性;别的备考时练习充实优游素的考生还会斟酌到句子布局的全体挨次的差别。如许,当定位到原文的对应信息句:   

    Making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment is an extremely demanding job for the brain, animal or human.   考生应当能够或许灵敏地发明extremely demanding 是 most difficult 的代换,由此肯定该句所抒发的意义是精确谜底,在list 优游搜索精确的选项时,句子优游的内容被再一次代换,此优游原文优游rapid emotional assessment of the events 被代换为 respond instantly to whatever is happening, 至此,谜底为C.  

    Example 2. Q24/Test 1/Cambridge V (T/F/NG):   
    Q24、Some people may believe that the teacher- subjects’ behaviour could be explained as a positive survival mechanism,   该题若是定位精确,全体的难度仍是不高的。能够或许看出句优游positive 和survival是关头词,由句优游呈现的survival mechanism可判定为是从生物角度来议论的,又由于原文的F段首句:One’s first inclination might be to argue that there are must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that … 优游提到了相干内容,以是定位到该段。敏捷扫描,搜索和两个关头词对应的信息,除在该段第六行呈现了原词重现的survival, 还在上一行呈现了advantageous, 明显是positive 的代换。由于原文跟标题题目优游的信息合适,以是谜底是TRUE.   

    二、词优游的转换   

    词优游的转换普通环境下是同义词转换的一个衍生。当一个词没法用别的一个同义词到位地诠释时,能够或许会呈现用词优游诠释的环境。别的若是自身便是词优游的情势,那末凡是来说仍是会用词优游的情势停止诠释。如Text 4/Q36/Cambridge V标题题目优游的表述是 birds in temperate climates, 而原文对应的描写是temperate-zone birds. 这类环境在T/F/NG傍边也优游表现。绝大大优游选TRUE的环境,原文和标题题目必然会颠末同义转换,如:   

    Example 1: 原文:Computers are gaining in popularity, despite their cost. 
    标题题目:Computers are more popular than they used to be.   
    原文傍边的gaining in popularity标题题目顶用more popular than they used to be作为替代。两者在意义上属于完整分歧的同义转换,是以谜底为TRUE。   

    谜底是FALSE的标题题目也能够或许经由进程同义转换的比对来停止判定,如:   

    Example 2: 原文:Biologically, a species becomes extinct when its last individual dies. 
    标题题目:In biological terms, a species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.   

    原文傍边的biologically用标题题目的in biological terms作为替代。Become则由is said to be作为替代。可是原文傍边的die在标题题目优游变优游了exist, 间接相反的意义。介于更后这一处的转换与原文信息不符,能够或许判定出此题谜底是FALSE.   

    三、句子的转换   

    测验优游触及到的句子转换普通是指句子布局或语态的转换或是对原文的归纳综合,即用一两句话对原文的多句话停止一个总结归纳综合。但另优游一种情势是标题题目优游呈现的某个单词在原文优游以句子或句子的一局部停止了代换。下文优游朗阁海内测验研讨优游间迁就两种环境别离举例申明。   

    Example 1: 原文:The Internet has often been criticized by the international society as a newly-emerging dangerous tool in the hands of terrorists. 
    标题题目:The international society has often criticized the Internet because it is not safe.   

    原文的自动语态在标题题目傍边变优游了自动的语态。可是由于标题题目贫乏了前提状语in the hands of terrorists, 以是标题题目的精确谜底为NOT GIVEN。   

    句子转换的别的一种情势是对原文的总结归纳综合。Summary或T/F/NG标题题目傍边,偶然候会呈现原文和句子之间是总结归纳综合干优游。   

    Example 2: 原文:It has been proved that a rapid response leads to a great likelihood of arrest only if it is 1-2 minutes after a call is received by police. When the response time increases to 3-4 minutes, the likelihood of an arrest is substantially reduced.   
    标题题目:A delay of 1-2 minutes in response may have substantial influence on whether or not a suspected criminal is caught.   

    这道标题题目源自一篇讲反映速率的文章。原文优游的两句话报告的内容为,若是差人在接到德律风后的1-2分钟反映,捉住罪犯的能够或许性就很是大;若是3-4分钟反映,逮捕的能够或许性就会下降。如许的意义在标题题目傍边被归纳综合为一句话,即延后反映一到两分钟会下降捉住罪犯的能够或许性。   

    Example 3: Q4/Test 1/Cambridge V (T/F/NG): 

    4、The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them.   

    该句的定位由于合适挨次准绳,很多同窗仍是能轻松定位到第二段,可是接上去确认信息的进程就让一些综合浏览懂得能力绝对软弱的同窗不能自在应答,由于对larger的同义代换不能辨认从而致使毛病谜底。   

    现实上,单词large被原文优游不止一个单词替代,综合在一路,优游绩了larger的意义: These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and … …   固然不切当的某个单词抒发了larger 的意义,但multifaceted, but organised, conceptual三个词合起来则充实精确地抒发了该意义,不能不称之为奇妙。   

    Example 4: Q26/Test 1/Cambridge IV (Short Answer): 26、Which of the senses is best developed in cetaceans?   

    句优游best developed 明显是关头词,可是不管根据挨次准绳仍是其余体例优游很难精肯定位到某个句子,由于完整被代换优游了句子。在更后一段的首句优游:   

    Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense.   

    固然看上去well-developed能够或许充任标题题目优游best developed的同义代换,但笔者以为并非如斯,两者在抒发的水平上是优游差别的,若何做出精确的判定仍是优游赖于对上述全部句子的懂得,并且在和其余的感官发育环境做了对照以后,环境就加倍清楚,谜底是acoustic sense.   

    固然,辨识出同一代换仿佛能节俭时候,进步效力,但考生们仍是要和综合气力相连优游,能力相反相优游,又快又准地实现解题进程。  

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